Poles in Pennsylvanina
Excerpt from "Poles in Pennsylvanina" by Matthew S. Magda, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission Website
The immigration of Poles to Pennsylvania largely coincided with the general patterns of Polish immigration to America. The first wave, before 1800, was a small number who immigrated for economic, ideological and romantic reasons. A second wave, from 1800–1865, was prompted by deeply held nationalistic and political beliefs. In the third wave, which lasted until 1914, many Poles were spurred by economic and religious motivations. The fourth wave, from World War I to the present, has been largely of émigrés and refugees in flight from either the chaos of World War II or serious conflict with the government of Poland.
Link to the full article and source: "Poles in Pennsylvanina" by Matthew S. Magda, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission Website < http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/groups/4286/poles/471930 >
Image source: Print and Picture Collection, Circulating collection immigrants, Gift of J.W. Smith Estate. Free Library of Philadelphia.