Free Library of Philadelphia


Initial C with the Birth of the Virgin

The manuscript was illuminated by two artists. The first is a follower of two Milanese artists, Giovan Pietro Birago and Master of B. F. (sometimes identified as Francesco Binasco). The second artist has not been identified.

This initial begins the first response at Vespers for the feast of the Nativity of the Virgin (Sept. 8). The antiphonary follows the Ambrosian rite which was celebrated in Milan, Italy, in the Middle Ages. The manuscript contains the coat of arms on fol. 1r for the church of Sant' Ambrogio in Milan.

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