Free Library of Philadelphia


This manuscript has been dated to ca. 1405. The scribe Johannes Parvus signed his name on f. 206v.

This miniature begins the Suffrage to St. Apollonia of Alexandria. According to the legend, she was tortured by having her teeth pulled out before throwing herself into the same fire that the soldiers of the Emperor Philip used to threaten her to renounce her faith. For this reason, she has became the patron saint of tooth ailments, and later, dentistry. This miniature was painted by the Luçon Master, one of the finest painters working in France in the beginning of the fifteenth century. His work is a prime example of the International Style, a style associated with courtly European culture at this time.

Torture of St. Apollonia

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